Servicios astrológicos

Paternity

Q: Can I use results from a home paternity test for legal reasons?


A: Results from a home paternity test cannot be used as proof of paternity for legal reasons such as child support, custody, Social Security, etc. This is because DNA is collected by test participants, chain-of-custody protocol is not followed, and identities of tested parties haven’t been independently verified. Be assured your results from a home paternity test will still be accurate for the samples provided to us: they are just for peace of mind and personal knowledge only. If you need results for court or think you may in the future, call us directly at 800-935-1-DNA




Q: Where can I get a paternity test?


A: Regardless of your personal reasons for ordering a paternity test, it’s essential to use a trusted and accredited lab like Truth to perform the testing. You can buy a home kit online and mail it in to the lab for processing. Legal and non-invasive prenatal paternity tests must be purchased directly from an accredited DNA-testing lab.




Q: What are the different types of paternity tests?


A: At-Home DNA Test: You collect DNA in the comfort of your own home with a simple cheek swab, and then mail it in dirctly to the lab for processing Legal Paternity Test: This test uses the chain-of-custody process to independently verify tested parties at the time of DNA collection. It’s required for cases involving child support and custody, immigration, inheritance disputes, and other legal matters Non-Invasive Prenatal Paternity Test: Using free-floating DNA found in the mother’s blood, this test allows individuals to safely determine paternity any time after the seventh week of pregnancy




Q: What are the benefits of paternity tests?


A: DNA testing is the gold standard for determining the paternity of a child. The advantages of paternity testing include: Access to legal rights and privileges such as health insurance or child support (legal paternity tests only) Insights into medical history, such as inherited conditions The chance to develop emotional bonds and a sense of identity Peace of mind




Q: How long does a paternity test take?


A: TRUTH DNA prides itself on delivering quick and accurate results. Home test results and legal test results are posted two business days after samples are received at our lab, although next-day and same-day results are available for an additional fee. It takes 7 business days to receive results of a non-invasive prenatal paternity test, but 3-day results are an option (extra fee required).




Q: How does a paternity test work?


A: If you want to know how to get a paternity or aren’t certain how the process works, rest assured it’s easy and quick. DNA is collected from the participants’ cheeks using a simple, painless swab. The DNA paternity test compares the collected sample from the possible father to that of a child (minor or adult) to determine the likelihood of a biological father/child relationship between the tested individuals.




Q: Is there a DNA center near me?


A: If you’re wondering where to get a paternity test, it’s likely Truth DNA has this covered. We have more than 5,000 DNA-collection sites worldwide, including AABB-accredited Truth DNA collection sites in 10 major metro areas in the United States. Simply call one of our specialists today and they’ll identify the closest and most convenient paternity-testing location near you.





Legal Paternity

Q: What is the difference between a legal paternity test and a home paternity test?


A: The main difference between a legal paternity test and a home paternity test is how the results report can be used: results from a legal paternity test are court-admissible while results from a home paternity test are not. Courts accept results for a legal test because a chain-of-custody process with witnessed DNA collection is followed, which ensures the correct DNA has been submitted for testing.




Q: Where do we go to get DNA collected for a legal paternity test?


A: DNA is collected for a legal paternity test at an approved facility near you. Truth DNA works with thousands of approved providers across the U.S.A and around the world, including clinics, hospitals, and even mobile collection units. When you order your test, we make the appointment on your behalf at a time and place most convenient for each tested party. Participants in the test can have their DNA collected at different times and/or in separate locations.




Q: Does getting a legal paternity test change the birth certificate?


A: Getting a legal paternity test done does not in itself change the birth certificate, but the legal proof of paternity provided by this test may be used to request a change with the Department of Vital Records or other entity where you live.




Q: Do all courts accept results from a legal paternity test?


A: Not all courts accept results from a legal paternity test—whether or not a report is accepted as proof of paternity is up to each individual judge. However, when a court accepts results from a DNA test as proof of paternity, that test must be a legal one and not a home one.




Q: Does the mother need to be included in a paternity test?


A: In most cases, a mother’s DNA is not necessary to obtain conclusive results for a paternity test. However, there are occasions when her DNA is helpful in strengthening results, and the lab will suspend testing and request a sample from the mother. If possible, it’s best for the mother to submit her sample upfront to prevent delays if her DNA turns out to be needed.





Home Paternity

Q: Can I use results from a home paternity test for legal reasons?


A: Results from a home paternity test cannot be used as proof of paternity for legal reasons such as child support, custody, Social Security, etc. This is because DNA is collected by test participants, chain-of-custody protocol is not followed, and identities of tested parties haven’t been independently verified. Be assured your results from a home paternity test will still be accurate for the samples provided to us: they are just for peace of mind and personal knowledge only. If you need results for court or think you may in the future, call us directly at 800-935-1DNA.




Q: Are results for a home paternity test just as accurate as for a legal one?


A: Yes; results for a home paternity test are just as accurate as they are for a legal test. In fact, once samples arrive at the lab, the process for testing is exactly the same for a home test as it is for a legal one. You can be certain your results for a home paternity test are accurate for the samples we are provided.




Q: What if the cheek swabs seem too wet to put in the paper sample envelopes?


A: Cheek-swab samples are not the same as saliva samples, so we recommend that customers swab for a full 30 seconds per swab while taking care to avoid the saliva-rich gum areas. If samples seem “too wet” once swabbing is complete, just wave the swab in the air for 1-2 minutes before placing it in the paper sample envelope.




Q: Do names appear on the home paternity test report?


A: Truth DNA does not put names on the home paternity test report, since identities of the test participants have not been independently confirmed. Names of participants are requested on sample envelopes for internal-tracking and communication purposes only. If you want a report with names, you may want to choose a legal paternity test instead. Sorry—we cannot add names to a home paternity test upon request.




Q: Do you accept unusual samples for home paternity testing?


A: Cheek-swab samples are the industry standard for this type of test. Cheek swabs make DNA extraction by our lab’s robots easy, which is one way to keep costs lower for our customers. If you want to submit an “unusual” sample such as toothbrush, ear wax on swabs, or fingernail clippings, you must call us directly at 800-935-1DNA to discuss your request with one of our experts. Keep in mind there is a non-refundable fee of $150 required to test a sample’s viability prior to testing.





Non-Invasive Prenatal Paternity

Q: How early in the pregnancy can a non-invasive prenatal paternity test be performed?


A: The Truth DNA Diagnostics test can be performed as early as 7 weeks into the pregnancy. In some cases, there may not be enough free-floating fetal DNA in the mother’s bloodstream at the time of initial sample collection. In these cases, we’ll schedule a second sample collection two weeks later at no additional cost.




Q: Is the non-invasive prenatal paternity test safe?


A: Yes, the Truth DNA Diagnostics prenatal paternity test is completely safe for both the mother and the pregnancy. In the past, paternity could only be determined through invasive methods such as amniocentesis or CVS (Chorionic Villus Sample), which run a slight risk of miscarriage.




Q: Can a prenatal paternity test be performed if the possible fathers are related?


A: No; because of the way the data is analyzed, a prenatal paternity test cannot be performed reliably if possible fathers are closely-related (brothers, or father/son).




Q: Can a non-invasive prenatal paternity test be performed if the mother is pregnant with twins?


No, a prenatal paternity test cannot be performed if the mother is pregnant with twins or multiples.




Q: Does a prenatal paternity test always have to be legally witnessed?


A: No, a prenatal paternity test does not have to be a witnessed test with court-admissible results. The DNA sample for the possible father is a cheek swab, whereas the mother’s is a small blood sample. Many of our customers swab a possible father themselves at home while the mother goes to a clinic or other approved facility to have her blood drawn. However, in order for results to be legally-admissible and for names to be on the test report, the possible father’s DNA collection does have to be witnessed by an approved, independent third party.




Q: Is the Truth DNA Diagnostics prenatal paternity test accredited?


A: Yes. The Truth DNA Diagnostics prenatal paternity test is accredited by the AABB. AABB is the global leader in standards development, accreditation, and implementation of quality systems in transfusion medicine and cellular therapies. This is the first non-invasive prenatal paternity test accredited by the AABB, and only DDC maintains the organization’s strict accreditation standards of accountability for prenatal DNA paternity testing, including analysis, PhD review, and documentation.




Q: Is gender identification included in the results?


Gender identification is optional, since not all parents want to know. It’s also important to know that only the mother can request gender identification. Ask one of our case specialists about the gender option during your free confidential consultation: 800.935.1DNA





Aunt or Uncle

Q: What relatives should participate in an avuncular DNA test?


A: Generally, participants in an avuncular DNA test are the child and either a brother or sister of the possible father in the case. Whenever possible, the mother of the child should also contribute her DNA to testing since her participation can definitely help to strengthen results.




Q: What if the paternal aunt is not a full sibling of the possible father?


A: We cannot test half-siblings of a possible father. It must be a full-sibling relationship in order to obtain the most conclusive results possible.




Q: For an avuncular DNA test, can first or second cousins be tested instead of an aunt or uncle?


A: No; the participation of cousins isn’t helpful for avuncular DNA testing or any other type of relationship test, since the percentage of DNA they might share with the child in question is low. The participants in the test should be the child, the possible father’s sister or brother, and the mother of the child.





Maternity

Q: Can a maternity DNA test be used for immigration?


A: Yes, a maternity DNA test can be used for immigration to the United States. Once you have the necessary forms from UCIS, call us at 800.935.1DNA. A Truth DNA immigration expert sets up a DNA-collection appointment for the petitioner in the United States at a convenient time and place. The embassy or consulate in the foreign country takes care of DNA collection for the beneficiary. Once testing is complete, Truth DNA ships DNA-testing results directly to the requesting immigration office.




Q: How long does a maternity DNA test take?


A: Once all samples have been received at the lab, results for a maternity test are posted to a secure online account in just 2 business days. Next-day and same-day results are also available for an additional fee—call one of our experts at 800-935-1DNA for requirements.




Q: Where is DNA collected for a maternity test?


A: When doing a home test for peace of mind and personal knowledge, you collect your own DNA at home, using the collection kit we send you. For legally-admissible testing, one of our specialists sets up a witnessed DNA-collection appointment on your behalf at an approved facility near you.




Q: Can we get DNA collected for a maternity test in different locations?


A: Yes, you can definitely get DNA collected in separate locations. We understand that not all test participants live in the same area, so one of our specialists will either (1) send DNA-collection materials to separate addresses for a home test or (2) make appointments on your behalf at separate DNA-collection facilities for a legal test.





Sibling

Q: Can sibling DNA test results be used for legal reasons?


A: Yes, sibling DNA test results can be used for legal reasons such as immigration, Social-Security benefits, inheritance rights, and more, as long as you order a legal siblingship test with court-admissible results. A report for an at-home peace-of-mind test cannot be used for legal reasons.




Q: How much does a sibling DNA test cost?


A: A sibling DNA test starts at $300. Total cost depends on whether you need results for personal knowledge only or for legal reasons. A sibling test requires considerably more extensive analysis, which is why it costs more than a paternity test.




Q: How does this test work if it’s unknown whether the possible sibling is a half- or full-sibling?


A: If it’s unknown whether the possible sibling is a full or a half, we first test to see if there’s a biological relationship. If there isn’t, then testing is over. If a relationship is determined to exist, then we can do a full-sibling test at the request of the customer.




Q: How do I understand results for a sibling DNA test?


A: Understanding results for a sibling DNA test is a little tricky, since there can never be a straight “yes or no” answer in relationship testing. Calculations for relationships such as grandparent, avuncular (aunt/uncle), and siblings all involve statistics, and a probability of relationship is given as a percentage in the report: 90% or higher: the relationship is supported by DNA testing 9% – 89%: inconclusive result, and additional parties need to be tested Below 9%: the relationship is not supported by DNA testing If a probability of relationship (PRI) of 92% is given for a full-sibling test, the result could be understood as: “There is a 92% probability that the persons tested share a full sibling relationship.”




Q: My cousin could be my sibling. Can we do this test?


A: No, we cannot perform a sibling test if there might be a cousin relationship.





Grand Parent

Q: How accurate is a grandparent DNA test compared to a paternity test?


Q: How accurate is a grandparent DNA test compared to a paternity test? A: A grandparent DNA test is as accurate as a paternity test, although the conclusiveness of results varies more. For example, the probability of relationship between a father and child is almost always 99.9% or higher, but for a single-grandparent test (where only one paternal grandparent is tested instead of both paternal grandparents), the probability of relationship might be 92%—which is nevertheless still considered a conclusive result. To strengthen the conclusiveness of test results, we recommend that both paternal grandparents test—if possible—and that the child’s mother participate in testing as well. When both paternal grandparents and the mother participate in testing, probability of paternity is nearly always 99.9% or higher.




Q: Can we test using just one grandparent?


A: You can do this DNA test using samples from just one paternal grandparent and the child; however, the chances of obtaining conclusive results are reduced. If possible, we always recommend including the mother’s DNA in both single-grandparent and grandparentage (both paternal grandparents) DNA tests. Ideally, both paternal grandparents would test, along with the child and the mother.




Q: Can a grandparent DNA test be done without the mother?


A: Yes, a grandparent test can be done without the mother, although we highly recommend that the mother be included as well. Her participation helps the analysts to more clearly determine which of the child’s DNA comes from the father’s side and which comes from the mother and it can also help to strengthen the probability of relationship percentage.




Q: Can a grandparent DNA test be used for legal reasons?


A: Yes; a grandparent DNA test can be used for legal reasons as long as a chain-of-custody procedure has been set up and followed: The test is ordered directly from Truth DNA Truth DNA schedules a DNA-collection appointment for test participants at a convenient facility near them Test participants provide proof of identity at the appointment and DNA-collection is witnessed. The facility signs paperwork and returns samples to the lab for testing Results from a legal grandparent test are court-admissible and can be used for legal reasons such as Social Security, inheritance rights, custody, and more. Results for an at-home grandparent DNA test cannot be used legally.




Q: Does the mother need to consent to a grandparent DNA test?


A: Whether the test is an at-home or a legal one, the responsibility is on the tested parties to ensure all parties and/or legal guardians agree to testing.





Twins

Q: My twins had separate placentas. Doesn’t that mean they’re fraternal?


A: Twins with separate placentas are not always fraternal. Only a twin zygosity DNA test can confirm the exact relationship between twins. Before the widespread use of DNA testing, medical professionals (and therefore parents) assumed that, if twins had their own amniotic sacs and their own placentas, then they must be fraternal. Fraternal twins come from two eggs being fertilized by two sperm. The zygotes implant separately, have their own in-utero “condos,” and can be girl/girl, boy/boy, or boy/girl. Identical twins come from a single fertilized egg that splits in two. This division happens usually around days 4 or 5, and after the placenta and amniotic sac have started developing. BUT : If the fertilized egg splits before the placenta and amniotic sac normally start forming for identical twins, say around days 2 or 3, then each zygote develops its own sac and placenta. So what could look like fraternal twins to medical pros is actually a set of identical twins!




Q: Can results from a twin DNA test be used for legal reasons?


A: Results from a twin DNA test can be used for legal reasons if a chain-of-custody process is followed: the test is set up by a Truth DNA specialist, DNA-collection is witnessed at an approved facility, and samples are sent directly to our lab for testing from the facility. If you just want answers for personal knowledge or as a guide for possible future medical treatment, then a home twin DNA test is an option.




Q: Is there a minimum or maximum age limit for a twin DNA test?


A: No, there is no minimum or maximum age limit for a twin DNA test. Testing is routinely performed for newborn, toddler, teen, and adult twins.





Family Reconstruction

Q: What is a DNA family reconstruction test used for?


A: Most often, it is used to confirm if a child is related to the possible father’s close relatives, when the possible father isn’t available for testing. And there are other scenarios when this series of tests can help solve complex relationship questions. When you call for a free, no-obligation consultation, one of our DNA experts investigates every avenue with you and determines who should participate in testing to obtain the most conclusive results possible.




Q: How many people need to participate in a family reconstruction test?


A: The minimum number of participants is 2. There is no set number of people who need to participate, as each situation is unique and this question is answered on a case-by-case basis. A general guideline is: the more close relatives who can test, the better! Our DNA experts can help to determine who and how many people should test.




Q: Can cousins participate in a DNA family reconstruction test?


A: No; the closer the potential biological relation to the person in question, the better. For example, if you’re trying to determine whether or not a child is a member of a possible father’s family, the best participants would be possible paternal grandparents or aunts and uncles of child. Biological cousins wouldn’t share enough DNA with the child to be helpful in confirming a family relationship.




Q: Can a DNA family reconstruction test be used for legal reasons?


A: Unlike paternity tests and grandparent tests, most courts are unlikely to accept results for a family reconstruction test, but it really depends on the individual case. If you need results for court, establishing inheritance rights, or other legal reasons, be sure to discuss possibilities with one of our DNA experts.




Q: Can DNA be collected at different locations?


A: Yes, DNA can definitely be collected at different locations. We understand extended family members are usually spread out, and so the price of testing includes shipping of DNA-collection kits to however many family members are participating in the test.





Native

Q: Will this test tell me if I am Native American?


A: This is not an ancestry test that helps to determine if you may have indigenous-American DNA. Rather, it is a relationship test—paternity, maternity, etc.— that can help establish a biological relationship between you and an existing tribe member if you are applying for tribal membership.




Q: Will this test help me find out which tribe I’m from?


A: This test will not help you find out which tribe you’re from. In fact, there is no test offered by any lab that can tell you specifically which tribe you may be from.




Q: Will this test determine my Blood Quantum (BQ)?


A: Blood Quantum (BQ) is defined as the percentage of ancestors who are documented as full-blood native Americans. There is currently no test on the market to determine your BQ.





Infidelity

Q: Is infidelity DNA testing anonymous?


A: Infidelity DNA testing from Truth DNA is completely confidential, and any DNA data is stored securely for no more than three (3) months before it is destroyed. We do not share any private information or DNA data with third parties. No names appear on the final report: only reference to the samples and genders provided by the client.




Q: Are results for this test court admissible?


A: No; results for an infidelity DNA test cannot be used for any legal reason since a chain-of-custody process has not been followed. Because the customer is responsible for providing all samples for the test, Truth DNA cannot confirm and prove where the DNA has come from or whose it is.




Q: Are there any restrictions on this infidelity DNA test?


A: This test cannot be used in any situation involving law enforcement or a current legal proceeding, nor can it be used in a case involving a minor. Contact our forensics team directly for these types of cases at 800.935.1DNA




Q: What types of samples are used for this test?


A: A fabric sample is the most common type used for an infidelity test. If a sample has any moisture, protect it by storing it in a paper bag rather than a plastic one: This helps to maintain the sample’s viability for testing. If you have questions about the type of sample you want to use, contact one of our specialists directly at 800.935.1DNA




Q: What are the results provided for an infidelity DNA test?


A: You receive a lab report detailing: If DNA was detected on the sample The gender associated with the DNA If the DNA in question matches the self-sample you supplied In the case of multiple samples, multiple reports are issued. Staff are available to help you understand results and answer questions.